Week 1

1 1/7 Introductory exercise: "In a Grove" - What do we know with relative certainty (agreement by at least two accounts)? What is less certain (only one perspective)? TC.

Distributed and highlighted several sections of the syllabus.

Introductory exercise: Distributed xerox copies of the short story, "In a Grove." The testimonies which make up the story were already shuffled to randomize the order in which they are read, collectively; but the continuation page of testimony #7 needs to be positioned after #7. Read/mark up the testimonies first, then on yellow sheet (divided in half) cluster evidence under two themes: (1) evidence about which there is no disagreement-ie., offered once without contradiction by another testimony, or agreed to in two or more testimonies; and (2) evidence about which there is some disagreement. Make entries as short phrases in own words (preferably not as quotes), followed by the testimony number. For example, husband wore blue kimono -- 4. Set up sheet as follows:

                                                                                                                                Name _________________

"In a Grove"
                             Evidence with no disagreement                                      Contested evidence

                                                                                                              husband wore lilac kimono -- 5
                                                                                                                                    vs.
                                                                                                              body clad in blue kimono - 1

This exercise introduced the TC (thematic clustering) worksheet. Some discussion in groups, to be continued at next meeting.

Homework: (1) Complete TC for two kinds of evidence. (2) For Byatt assignment, set up a yellow sheet like the one prepared for "In a Grove," but cluster evidence (words/short phrases + page numbers) under two themes: evolution (often spoken by William Adamson) and Argument from Design (often presented by Harald Alabaster).



2 1/9 Due: TC for "In a Grove"; TC for Byatt, "Morpho Eugenia," 3-57.

"In a Grove": based on TC, what evidence (testimony) seems trustworthy, and why? what is untrustworthy, and why? Group discussion of the evidence clustered under each theme.
              --formulate a schematic story line covering events before the grove, what happened in the grove, and after events in    the grove. Distinguish uncontested from contested evidence (the latter by multiple possibilities.
               --Your schematic story line constitutes an SoA for your interpretation of the short story, which differs from the logic used by the author.

Discussion of TC for Byatt: group discussion of entries under the two categories
                --tentative definitions (with elaborations) of both concepts, evolution and the argument from/for design (sometimes incorrectly called creationist).
                --add a third theme, social organization (humans and other animals). Fill in entries through page 57 together.

Homework: Complete your SoA for "In a Grove"; continue TC (now for three themes) in Byatt, 57-125.


Week 2

3   1/14 Due: SoA of alternative story lines for “In a Grove”; TC (for evolution, design, and
              social organization) in Byatt through 125.

Housekeeping issues: (1) distribute syllabus, etc. to students who were not in class last week; intersperse them at tables with students who have prepared readings and worksheets to date. (2) Update on who’s still missing Byatt. (3) We’ll begin out-of-sync assignments as of 1/23 – readings/worksheets due for everyone who can manage it but not discussed until meeting of 1/28 – which should allow everyone to catch up.

“In a Grove” – TC: Evidence clustered under two themes (uncontested and contested)
              --> SoA of alternative story lines: What happened? How did it happen? Why did it happen?

         Group discussions of SoAs --> present a few alternatives to entire class.

          For Wednesday, convert schematic SoA into a written thesis statement (TS): declarative component -- your interpretation of the author’s message in this short story. [explanatory component left hanging since we do not know enough about the author’s worldview].

Byatt’s Angels & Insects: TC (for evolution, design, and social organization).

     Set up group responsibilities (by tables) for presenting concepts and evidence for each theme.
          – evolution by natural selection: 3, 4
          – design (divine creator): 2, 6, 7
          – social organization: 1, 5, 8

              --> Group preparations for presentations of each theme on Wednesday.
 

Homework: TS for “In a Grove.” Complete TC (three themes) for Byatt, 125-83. Zola, translator’s
introduction to Germinal (read in tandem with Rougon-Macquart genealogies distributed in class).
 



     4   1/16 Due: TS for “In a Grove.” TC (three themes) for Byatt through 183 (end of “Morpho
          Eugenia”). Zola, Introduction translator’s introduction to Germinal.

Hand in worksheets prepared for “In a Grove”: TC, SoA, TS.

Byatt, “Morpho Eugenia”: Group presentations
         – evolution by natural selection: 1, 5, 8

         Mini-lecture on first (and second) Darwinian revolution(s) -- featuring the first.

Zola, Germinal:
          – Set up the TC themes for reading this novel:
                  Everyone: Étienne and Naturalistic concept of development; plus either Classical Liberalism or Socialism (briefly define terms)

Homework: Zola, parts 1-3; complete TC (everyone do Étienne and Naturalistic concept of development;
choose either Classical Liberalism or Socialism).


Week 3

5 1/23     Due: Zola, parts 1, 2, 3. TC (Étienne and Naturalistic concept of development; plus either Classical Liberalism or Socialism); put in Byatt TC at end of discussion.

“In a Grove” – Comments on worksheets:
             TC – be sure to indicate sources; batch/compare contested testimony.
             SoA – all promising; some more effective as a bridge between evidence (TC) and thesis statement (TS).
             TS – should have the most likely account of what happened, based on assessment of evidence (declarative component); for this exercise, not expected to have typical explanatory component for this course, the author’s worldview reflected in the declarative component.

Byatt, “Morpho Eugenia”:
          Recapitulation of last Wednesday’s discussion of Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection as represented in the novella, chiefly Wm. Adamson.
                      – read from Darwin, Origin, the “entangled bank” paragraph (489-90).

          Now for the impact of Darwinian theory on “European worldview” or ethos (“distinguishing character, sentiment, moral nature, or guiding beliefs of a . . . group . . .” – Webster’s Collegiate Dict, 10th ed.), with group defined as Europeans with sufficient education to read newspapers, novels, Bible, etc.

                – Background on the philosophe critique of organized religions: theism –> deism for majority in Protestant countries, “high culture” readers in Catholic lands; evangelicals and pietists present but in minority.

                                – Paley’s argument from design indicative of this critique. In context of Germanic “Higher Criticism” and new findings in geology and paleontology, becomes the evolution-laden perspective of Harald Alabaster.

                – group presentations on depiction of the design “camp” in Byatt.

Zola and the experimental novel: review the handout, and general reactions to completing TC for chapters 1-3 in Germinal. Understanding of two themes clustered?

Due on Monday: Read handout on Fate: Enlightenment, Romantic, and Developmentalist perspectives. Zola,
parts 4, 5; continue TC, adding third theme (optional) on Darwinian evolution/animal origins.


Week 4

6 1/28  Due Zola, parts 4, 5 -- TC (Étienne and Naturalistic concept of development; plus either Classical Liberalism or Socialism).

Byatt: Reminder about context covered last Wednesday: the philosophe critique of organized religions: theism –> deism for majority in Protestant countries, “high culture” readers in Catholic lands; evangelicals and pietists present, but in minority.

                    – argument from design indicative of this New Enlightenment critique: In context of Germanic “Higher Criticism” and new findings in geology and paleontology, Paley’s argument becomes the reluctant, evolution-laden perspective of Harald Alabaster + his use of Romantic “sense-sublime.”

                    – review New Enlightenment and Romanticism on the worldviews handout (on Fate).

          Presentation by groups on social organization: what is Byatt’s point in comparing social insects to organization of an English gentry household?

        Due on Wednesday: Writing exercise for the 1st essay assignment (on Byatt or Zola): assume at this point you choose to write on Byatt, (1) select a theme/topic for the essay (I suggest one of the three themes you clustered on the TC); (2) formulate a historical question or problem about that theme–eg., why does Harald Alabaster consider the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection so distasteful? (3) answer that question in a sentence that captures Byatt’s presentation of Alabaster’s point of view (the declarative component of the thesis); and (4) place Alabaster’s position in the appropriate intellectual worldview (the explanatory component of the thesis).

Mini-lecture on Zola, the experimental novel, and (developmentalist) naturalism.
Zola, "The Experimental Novel"

Homework for Wednesday: Zola, parts 6, 7 -- TC (Étienne and Naturalistic concept of development; plus either Classical Liberalism or Socialism). Writing Exercise #1 (paper copy distributed in class).



7 1/30 Due: Zola, parts 6, 7; TC on two topics;  Writing Exercise #1.

Group & class discussion of  Germinal, parts 1-5:
          – Étienne and developmentalism: begin developing an SoA depicting Étienne’s fate as it emerges from Zola’s naturalistic experiment.

                    – consider each part as a phase (or phases) of Zola’s experiment. As part of phase 1, establish Étienne’s persona (inherited characteristics + upbringing + training + experiences) just before he reaches the pit. Then use your TC to note interaction of internal and external environment on Étienne’s development as member/leader of the miners.

                              –> clarify the socio-economic “circumstances” that constitute the external environment into which Zola places Étienne to begin the literary experiment: one coal mine in northern France and the existing relations between workers and agents of the owners of the mine. What is the system of which they are parts? What are they, respectively, expected to do and think (what are the expectations and values inherent in the classical liberal ethos)?

                              –> what are the arguments of those who justify the status quo (capitalism free trade, haves and have-nots, etc.)? of those who call for reform? revolution?

          -- What “results” (in the form of generalizations/laws of human behavior) emerge from Zola’s literary experiment?

Writing Workshop
 – Discuss/revise Writing Exercise #1.
 – Set up Writing Exercise #2.

Due Monday: Writing Exercise #2. Mann, parts 1, 2, 3. We will analyze this book as an experimental (naturalistic) novel according to Zola’s criteria. Divide responsibility within groups for close reading/SoA preparation of one part, scanning the other two parts. SoA should contain two segments: (1) an expanded genealogical chart of characters, listing inherited characteristics + experiences, social roles, and worldviews (2) A bullet outline of external circumstances and happenings in the part you are assigned. In advance of class, make a copy of your SoA for everyone in your group + one to hand in to PVJ.


Week 5

8 2/4     Writing Exercise #2. Mann, parts 1, 2, 3; two-segment SoA (expanded genealogy + bullet outline) for one part, with copies for everyone in your group + one to hand in to PVJ.

Distribute Mann SoA within each group, and place one copy in folder for PVJ; divide responsibility for parts 4 and 5.

Zola, Germinal:
          – mini-lecture on exchange economy.

          – classical liberalism/global market economies.

          – socialist critiques: utopian, scientific, collectivist; Étienne’s development from artisan to strike-leader
     to organizer.

Brief Review of worldview as an interpretive device – handout on 19th century intellectual timeline.

Writing Exercise #2 (setting up the thesis paragraph and topics for the substantiation)

             –>  Writing Exercise #3 (using the thesis statement to develop logic of the substantiation)

                          –> skeletal format (topic sentence + complete quotations & short citation) for each paragraph.

Distribute the cover sheet for the first essay exercise due on Friday.

Due for Wednesday: Complete Writing Exercise #3. Mann, parts 4, 5; each person in group responsible for constructing the two-segment SoA (expanded genealogy + bullet outline). Review SoAs for parts 1-3 received from group in advance of discussing them on Wednesday and creating a master genealogy chart.


9 2/6     Mann, parts 4, 5; each person in group responsible for constructing the two-segment SoA (expanded genealogy + bullet outline).

Zola, Germinal: Complete Monday topics; results from the fictional experiment –> social laws –> reform or revolution? That is, what is Zola’s overall message? what have we learned from this experimental novel?

Writing Exercise #3 –> formulating the thesis and substantiating paragraphs; remainder stays in skeletal format.
                 – clarify what goes in the declarative and explanatory parts of the thesis statement.

Due Friday, 2/8  Essay #1 due in V-J’s box in 301 Morrill Hall (History Department) by 2:00 p.m.

Mann’s Buddenbrooks, which we will analyze as an experimental (naturalistic) novel according to Zola’s criteria.

             Discuss SoAs for parts 1-3.
                        –> in groups, ask any questions necessary for you to use your group-mates’s SoAs to put together a master intellectual genealogy for the Buddenbrooks family
                                       –> begin master genealogies; continue outside of class.
                                       –> what worldviews are represented so far?
                        –> in groups, review the bullet outlines on external circumstances and happenings in the first three parts. Do any affect home and/or business? what generalizations can we make about the times that constitute the context for this novel?

Due Monday and Wednesday: Mann, parts 6, 7; Mann, parts 8, 9. Each person in group responsible for constructing the two-segment SoA (expanded genealogy + bullet outline) for one part out of four, only.


Week 6

10  2/11 Mann, parts 6, 7. Each person in group responsible for constructing the two-segment SoA
          (expanded genealogy + bullet outline) for one part, only, of the four due this week.

Thomas Mann’s Buddenbrooks:
     Group specialization responsibilities for generating discussion for entire book (Draw lots):
          – general circumstances and happenings in each part – group 7
          – changing business ethos (values, standards, and expectations) – group 6
          – Buddenbrook homes and firm – group 5
    The following four groups should interpret topics in terms of Zola’s criteria for an experimental novel, with particular     attention to how hereditary characteristics become significant factors in how the characters respond to changing circumstances + the worldviews Mann develops through these characters:
          – Older generations of Buddenbrooks + Christian – group 2
          – “The Buddenbrook ladies” (Tony, Clara, etc.) – group 1
          – Thomas – group3
          – Hanno – group 4

     Work from two-segment SoA prepared for each part. Look for story line (what happened) and the intellectual context/worldviews (Enlightenment, Romantic, New Enlightenment, Developmentalism, and Fin-de-Siècle).

         Prepare short group presentations for parts 1-5.

          Collective construction of major developments in the novel. Covered the early family members and their
     worldviews: Johann Sr. – New Enlightenment, esp. rational deist, attached to formal gardens, and
     unalloyed believer that classical liberalism would benefit everyone; Consul “Jean” – Romantic, with a
     belief in a greater being, preferred wild gardens, yet considerable elements of New Enlightenment
     practicality when it came to business. The house in Meng Strasse–what it represented.

Due Wednesday: Mann, parts 8, 9. Each person in group responsible for constructing the two-segment SoA
(expanded genealogy + bullet outline) for one part, only, of the four due this week.


11   2/13 Mann, parts 8, 9. Each person in group responsible for constructing the two-segment SoA
          (expanded genealogy + bullet outline) for one part, only, of the four due this week.

Thomas Mann’s Buddenbrooks: Continue speciality group process initiated in prior meeting.
     Carry-over from Monday.
      Prepare short group presentations for parts 6-7.
      Clarification of three major worldviews at mid-century: New Enlightenment, Romanticism, Developmentalism.

      Continue collective construction of major developments. Discussed both traditional business practices and the emerging form of entrepreneurial capitalism that brought new firms into competition with B&sons.
      – individual happiness vs. links in a chain/sacrifice self for family
      – the decreasing fertility of the family, and persistence of inherited traits – some positive for family fortunes, some negative.

Then gave snapshots of Consul Jean’s children: Tony, Christian, Thomas, and Clara.

Due Monday: Mann, parts 10, 11. Each person in group responsible for constructing the two-segment SoA (expanded genealogy + bullet outline) for one part, only.
 
 


Week 7

 12   2/18 Mann, parts 10, 11. Each person in group responsible for constructing the two-segment SoA (expanded genealogy + bullet outline) for one part, only.

Thomas Mann’s Buddenbrooks: Continue collective construction of major developments.
          NE & Romantic Fate vs. chance (developmentalism) – examples in the novel, and how to use them in as analytical devices for the explanatory/worldview component of the thesis statement.

          Part 4 – revolutions of 1848; Grünlich’s insolvency and Jean’s responses; Thomas as the new head of the
     firm (hereditary characteristics and behavior).

           Part 5 – Thomas’ hand vs. Christian’s hand as keys to character; new business climate; Thomas’
     marriage to Gerda Arnoldson, Clara’s to Pastor Tibertius -- what do they bode for future of
     family/firm?

          Part 6 – Impact of Schleswig-Holstein war on city, especially business climate? Thomas’ overwork,
     worries. Tony’s marriage to Permaneder; Christian’s situation: by end of this part, can you predict
     outcome of the family line/fortunes of the firm based on blending inheritance/experimental novel?

          Part 7 – Hanno’s physiognomy. Thomas becomes Senator, firm is strong, in a context in which
     entrepreneurial is becoming the norm; then, reversals begin for firm of B&sons. Why? Austro-Prussian
     war, new house, etc.

          Part 8 – Thomas, the practical vs. finicky man of business; Hanno under pressure and his artistic
     interests; failure of the Pöppenrade harvest –> impact on firm. Weinschenk’s arrest.

Due Wednesday: Lightman, 3-111; continue SoA provided, noting for each dream the date, concise statement of
the particular nature of time it contains, followed by a brief summation of what happened/outcomes. Be sure to
complete for Wednesday, even if you are not finished with Buddenbrooks.



13   2/20 Lightman, 3-111; SoA as described above–but not handed in until Monday.

Process-folios: be sure to keep them updated as worksheets are returned. Today, keep Lightman SoA so you can
finish them for Monday; but hand in Zola “phase” SoA on 11x17 sheet, as much as you decided to do.

Thomas Mann’s Buddenbrooks: Continue collective construction of major developments.
          Part 9 – Death of Frau Consul Elizabeth and various responses to it; familiar argument with Christian
     about duty to self vs. duty to family. Hagenström’s advances.

          Part 10 – Thomas B’s depression and experimental novel (478-79), his sense of decline, yet hope in
     evolution/next generation belied by Hanno’s character –> Schopenhauer –> regression & death. Hanno’s
     resistance to following father’s desires. New business/practical climate – social Darwinistic, amoral.

          Part 11 – Liquidation of firm and dissipation of family estate. Christian institutionalized. Hanno at the
     Realschule: Petersen’s catastrophe followed by Hanno’s unexpected fate (580) –> Hanno’s resignation
     –> little will to live (hands metaphor, 594), followed by typhoid fever. The survivors.

Review of Buddenbrooks in terms of three worldviews, and introduce the Fin-de-Siècle.

Lightman: discuss a few examples of the dreams, as encapsulated on the SoA prepared for today.
 – any patterns so far?
 – can some of them be associated with the 19th century worldviews we’ve discussed?

Due Monday: Lightman, 112-79; complete SoA on the 11x17 sheets, noting for each dream the date, concise
statement of the particular nature of time it contains, followed by a brief summation of what happened/outcomes.
Forster, chapters 1-4; use study guide (optional) as cross between SoA and TC, noting page numbers where one
can find discussion of topics & questions on the guide.


Week 8

14 2/25     Lightman, 112-79; complete SoA on the 11x17 sheets. Forster, chapters 1-4.

Thomas Mann’s Buddenbrooks: Review collective construction of major developments.
             Buddenbrooks in terms of three worldviews, and introduce the Fin-de-Siècle.
                    –> why Thomas B’s predominant orientation becomes Developmentalist in the changing business and political climate (and augers a break from the family tradition–he is unable to follow his grandfather’s motto, yet responds more effectively than his father did to the Grünlich episode); the persistence of trust in absolutes.

                    –> why Hanno reflects the Fin-de-Siècle elements of chance, absence of absolutes in natural and social laws, the sense of degeneration among the elites, the resignation to one’s fate, the victory of social Darwinistic thinking.

            Formulating T. Mann’s thesis (trajectory of family fortunes/fate + associated worldview).

Lightman, Einstein’s Dreams
          Context for the 1905 paper that Einstein is portrayed as having finished, and his dreams about possible worlds of time: Concepts of space and Time (Aristotle, Galileo, Römer, Newton –> “ether” –> Maxwell, Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887, Lorentz’ contracting bodies and slowing clocks).
                    –> how resolve the dilemma posed by Michelson-Morley results? Which dream(s) might explain the M-M result?

Forster, A Room with a View. Set up discussion for Wednesday:
             The Everlasting Why –> Nay or Yes
             What happened to George in chapter 4? Why does he choose life? What does that mean for Lucy?



15 2/27     Forster, chapters 5-14.

Lightman, Einstein’s Dreams

          How resolve the dilemma posed by Michelson-Morley results?
                              –> Which dream(s) might explain the M-M result?

          Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity and the Fin-de-Siècle.
                              –> Does the dream you chose match the special theory?

Forster, A Room with a View.
         The Everlasting Why –> Nay or Yes
         What happened to George in chapter 4? Why does he choose life (the Yes)? What does that mean for Lucy?

Due the Monday after Spring break: remainder of Forster (chapters 15-20).



Spring Break

Week 9

16 3/11    Due: Forster, chapters 15-20.

Forthcoming Essay #2–thesis paragraph, two substantiating paragraphs, remainder in skeletal form.
                     – distribute and discuss writing exercise # 4; complete for Wednesday.

Continue discussion of Forster:
         -- medieval –> modern social relations.
         – middle-class Europeans vs. the working-class Italians.
         – study guide.
         – Fin-de-Siècle themes.

Return SoA for Lightman, Einstein’s Dreams – impressive preparations.
         – Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity (1905)
         – compare with the three dreams selected before spring break: 14 May, 29 May, and 5 June.

Due for Wednesday: (1) Writing exercise #4. (2) Scan-read Brittain, 5-236, with the following questions/issues in mind for preliminary discussion on Wednesday: What was “the lovely legacy of a vanished world”– late Victorian and Edwardian England (91)? Compare Vera Brittain’s pedigree with Lucy Honeychurch in Forster. State of feminism in Brittain’s world? Different reactions by men and women to the run-up and early stages of WWI – “dreary” (104) vs. “very ennobling and very beautiful” (103-04). What was “home-front life” like in England after the war breaks out? Thereafter, you should choose whether to continue reading Brittain for the WWI segment or read Jünger.


17 3/13     Brittain, 5-236.

Writing workshop:
         – Fin-de-Siècle themes –> context for essay #2.
         – Writing exercise #4.

Continue discussion of Forster.
         – laws in nature apply to mankind: the reproductive imperative –> love
         – medieval/feudal social relations vs. equality/comradeship
         – Fin-de-Siècle fate
         – Lucy’s “ghosts” and parallel to Ibsen’s naturalistic dramas
         – Light vs. darkness

Slide presentation on changing social relations

Brittain, 5-236:
         – review assigned questions/issues.
         – recruiting posters in WWI

Review different perspectives on WWI in Brittain’s Testament and Jünger’s Storm of Steel in advance of selecting reading for the coming week.

Due Monday: Brittain, 237-463 or Jünger, ix-204; regardless of which you select, prepare a TC for various impacts of war-related experiences. If you select Jünger, you may skip Brittain until assignment for 3/25.
 

*** 3/15 Essay #2 due in V-J's box in 301 Morrill Hall (History Department) by 2:00 p.m.


Week 10

18 3/18     Brittain, 237-463 or Jünger, ix-204 (if you select Jünger, you may skip Brittain until assignment for 3/25).

Slide presentation: Forster’s theme that laws of nature, including the inherent drive to reproduce as part of evolutionary survival of species, apply to mankind –> as depicted in paintings and lithographs of Edvard Munch.
         – the reproductive imperative
                    –> perceptions of some males that “new women” (those who consciously acknowledge the reproductive imperative and break with Victorian social norms) can eventuate in freedom and comradeship for both sexes.
                    –> perceptions of some males that the “new woman” is a harpy or femme fatale.

         – fin-de-siècle notion of fate (compare passages in Forster with Brittain’s notion before WWI)

Brittain: Discuss questions posed last week for consideration while scanning part 1
          -- What was “the lovely legacy of a vanished world”– late Victorian and Edwardian England (91)? That is, what characterized it from the perspective of men and women of Brittain’s generation? What worldview?
          -- Vera Brittain’s pedigree cf. Lucy Honeychurch in Forster.
          -- State of feminism in Brittain’s world, and the expectation of comradeship she has with Roland (cf. with Lucy and George in Forster).

After the break, reconstitute groups in terms of those continuing to read Brittain and those who selected Jünger.
          -- Brittain groups: (1) progressive deterioration of her generation’s prewar vision and mood; (2) impact of war on the home front; (3) her depiction of warfare experienced by combatants.
          – Jünger groups: the depiction of warfare experienced by a combatant.

Due Wednesday: Brittain, 465-534 or Jünger, 205-319; continue TC for various impacts of war-related experiences.


19 3/20     Brittain, 465-534 or Jünger, 205-319.

Suspending personal judgments and values until one has understood traces from the past on “their” terms.
         – readers of traces and histories   <–> history vs. histories <–> the past and traces from it.
         – judgment vs. justice.
         – Historical reading (why you do the worksheets), reasoning, and interpretation – in discussion and writing

Slide presentation on WWI: trench warfare.

Discussion facilitate by Brittain groups:
         (1) progressive deterioration of her generation’s prewar vision and mood;
         (2) impact of war on the home front;
         (3) her depiction of warfare experienced by combatants.

And Jünger groups: the depiction of warfare experienced by a combatant–boredom, exhilaration, crucible of true manhood, etc.

For Monday: Brittain, 535-661 (everyone); scan-read, keeping a TC on three topics–(1) the “lost generation”; (2) feminism in post-war era; (3) attitudes about liberal democracies, emerging fascism, and socialism. Orwell, part 1; TC on capitalism and its consequences for different social classes (including cultural values, habits, diet, speech, etc.). Keep Germinal in mind – what’s the same, what’s changed, and why?

Advance information: Essay #3 due 4/12 may be on Brittain/Jünger, Orwell, or Levy. Please keep in mind as
you prepare worksheets for these books.



Week 11

20 3/25         Brittain, 535-661 (everyone), including a TC on three topics; Orwell, part 1, including a TC.

World War I: Continue discussion, facilitated by groups, of Jünger and Brittain on the impacts of WWI.

Mini-lecture on worldviews in the 20th century.

Due Wednesday: Continue TC for part 2 of Orwell, noting how he believes capitalism has generated class divisions and mutual antagonism; also cluster Orwell’s views of contemporary Socialists. Then write a thesis statement establishing Orwell’s justification for a particular kind of Socialism as our only hope for achieving “liberty” and “justice.”


21 3/27     Orwell, part 2, including a TC and a thesis statement.

Continue discussion, facilitated by groups, of Brittain on the impacts of WWI.

Mini-lecture on worldviews in the 20th century, which will set up discussion of Brittain’s views of the “lost generation,” feminism in the post-war era, and post-war attitudes about liberal democracies, emerging fascism, and socialism.

Discussion of Orwell, part 1.

Due Monday: Levi, 9-135; prepare a TC for three rubrics – (1) daily life in the Lager (concentration camp), (2) the logic/purpose of camp rules and activities, and (3) Levi’s views of human nature.


Week 12

22 4/1     Due: Levi, 9-135; TC for three rubrics.

Discussion of Brittain:
             – feminism in post-WWI era.

            -- her views of liberal democracies, emerging fascism, and socialism in the post-WWI era. Clarify terms and context as necessary.

Orwell, part 1:
          -- capitalism and its consequences for different social classes (including cultural values, habits, diet, speech, etc.).

          -- how does Orwell’s depiction of capitalism and its consequences compare with Zola’s in Germinal – what’s the same, what’s changed, and why?

Orwell, part 2:
          -- Orwell’s views of contemporary Socialists.

          -- Clarify Orwell’s justification for a particular kind of Socialism as our only hope for achieving “liberty” and “justice” in the 1930s.

Due for Wednesday: Levi, 136-87; continue TC for three rubrics – (1) daily life in the Lager (concentration camp), (2) the logic/purpose of camp rules and activities, and (3) Levi’s views of human nature.



23 4/3   Due: Levi, 136-87; continue TC for three rubrics.

Orwell: Continue presentations & discussion of questions, facilitated by different groups:
          Group 4: capitalism and its consequences for different social classes (including cultural values, habits, diet, speech, etc.).

          Group 6: what are the connections between parts 1 and 2 of Road to Wigan Pier? Why does Orwell visit Wigan as an undercover journalist? How connected to the larger problems in England in the 1930s?

          Group 2: Orwell’s views of contemporary Socialists -- how do they present Socialism? What does Orwell consider misguided about their presentations?

          Group 7: Why does Orwell believe capitalistic liberal democracies and contemporary socialists swell the ranks of the fascists?

Set up Levi discussion next week with transparencies on German/Nazi concentration camps.

Due Monday: Camus, parts 1, 2. Begin two worksheets – S to summarize each part, and a TC for the following categories: crisis situation brought on by quarantine of the town (the future is unknown –> “Angst” and its consequences); and different responses to living in this crisis situation. Although I urge you to complete the worksheets by the suggested due date, you will not hand them in until the final examination period along with other items that make up the final examination exercise.


Week 13

24 4/8     Camus, parts 1, 2. Two worksheets -- S to summarize each part, and a TC for the following categories: crisis situation brought on by quarantine of the town (the future is unknown –> “Angst” and its consequences); and different responses to living in this crisis situation. Not due until final examination period.

Group 1: Clarify Orwell’s justification for a particular kind of Socialism as our only hope for achieving “liberty” and “justice” in the 1930s.

Post-WWI worldviews: modern, post-modern, and anti-modern – all pivoting on responses to the legitimacy and desirability of “the Enlightenment project” (which includes Developmentalism after WWI).

Group discussions of Levi, followed by initial class discussion of first TC topic:

             daily life in the Lager (concentration camp). Transparencies on Auschwitz.



25 4/10     Camus, parts 3, 4, 5; continue S to summarize each part, and a TC for the following categories: crisis situation brought on by quarantine of the town (the future is unknown –> “Angst” and its consequences); and different responses to living in this crisis situation. Not due until final examination period.

Extension of due date for 3rd essay to Monday since I must go out of town this weekend on family emergency; why keep original due date when I’m not here to begin marking them?

Discussion of Levi:

             (1) daily life in the Lager (concentration camp) -- overview of comments from Monday, then continue.

             (2) the logic/purpose of camp rules and activities.

             (3) Levi’s views of human nature.

             (4) Tension between modern and post-modern worldviews.

Mini-lecture on existentialism as a philosophy of crisis:

               Fin-de-Siècle loss of trust in absolutes and traditional values –> alienation & angst –> WWI as archetypal limit situation:

                    –  individual despair –> stoic acceptance, objective detachment, suicide, repression.

                    – collective responses –> affirmation of individual engagement in post-modern world; authentic existence in a world without absolutes (the absurd)

Due Monday: Essay #3 + read Tom Stoppard’s play, Hapgood. As part of the examination packet, prepare a schematic SoA for Act 1, Scene 1 that suggests what happened in the changing room at the municipal bath – who goes in/out each cubicle, what they take in/out, what they do with the towel, etc. As with Einstein’s Dreams, read for parallels between relativity science and human condition (in this case, spy-craft between two opposing ideological world systems).


Week 14

26 4/15    Due: Stoppard (entire play); schematic SoA for Act 1, Scene 1.

Revised due date: Essay #3 (on Brittain/Jünger, Orwell, or Levy) due in V-J’s box in 301 Morrill Hall (History Department) by noon or hand in at beginning of class.

Distribute Processfolio checklists. The folio is due by 3:00 p.m. on Friday; no exceptions. I cannot accept worksheets enumerated on the checklist or folios after 26 March.

Distribute and clarify the final examination exercises, due at the beginning of the final examination period on 2 May (Thursday) from 12:45 - 2:45 p.m. Attendance mandatory according to University regulations.

Continue discussion of Camus, The Plague:

         Does Camus favor one of the possible existentialist responses to limit (crisis) situations?

                  –> develop thesis statement for exam packet (declarative + explanatory)

         If time, begin discussing Stoppard.

Due Wednesday: Read David Hare’s Racing Demon; prepare TC for varying types of belief/unbelief.


27 4/17     Hare (entire play); TC for varying types of belief/unbelief.

Questions about the final examination packet? what will happen during the final examination period?

Complete discussion of Camus:
          “crisis (limit) situation” – when modernist (Enlightenment) absolute values and assumptions of everyday life no longer seem to apply
                      –> avoid implications and continue adherence to modern worldview
                      –> flight into anti-modern worldviews (ultra-conservatism)
                      –> existentialist acceptance of absurdity (that absolutes are illusions/fictions) –> authentic existence
                               –> stoic acceptance and isolated detachment
                               –> rebel against the absurd via engagement and creation of meaning

          Lessons of the plague: there are no absolutes, only “certitudes” we all share – “love, exile, and suffering” (272); plague = life (277); “there are more things to admire in men than to despise” (278); “joy is always imperiled” (278).
                    – knowledge and memories from “exile” (crisis situation) vs. everyday life (time of forgetting and denial) (262-67).

Set up group-facilitated discussion of Stoppard’s play, Hapgood –> formulation of a thesis statement for part of
the final exam exercises.
             – what happens in the changing room (Act I, scene 1)? Significance of Wates’ “pink diagram”?
             – twins in the spy game and particles <–> waves and square root of 16.
             – quantum jumps in science and the play; how science (mathematics) works (p. 60).
             – real life, spy pattern, either/or thinking.
             – East vs. West and Strategic Defense research.
             – what happens in Act II, scenes 6 & 7.

Due Monday (recommended; will discuss on Wednesday): Ignatief, 3-71; bullet SoA for introduction (themes of entire book + thesis/intent), and bullet SoA for each of the two following essays. Discussion for Monday: Hare’s play, Racing Demon – modernism and anti-modernism (fundamentalist religions).


Week 15

28 4/22     Due: Ignatief, 3-71; bullet SoA for introduction (themes of entire book + thesis/intent), and bullet SoA for each of the two following essays.

Group-facilitated discussion of Stoppard’s play, Hapgood –> formulation of a thesis statement for part of the final exam exercises.
         – Table 6: what happens in the changing room (Act I, scene 1)? Significance of Wates’ “pink diagram”?
         – Table 7: twins in the spy game and particles <–> waves and square root of 16.
         – Table 1: quantum jumps in science and the play; how science (mathematics) works (p. 60).
         – Table 3: real life, spy pattern, either/or thinking.
         – Table 4: East vs. West and Strategic Defense research.
         – Table 2: what happens in Act II, scenes 6 & 7.

Discussion of Hare, Racing Demon.


29 4/24     Continue discussion of books for the examination packet
 

4/26 Course processfolio, organized according to the check-list provided, due by 3:00 p.m. in 301 MH (look for a box for HST 338 on counter near V-J's mailbox).
 

Final Exam 5/2 (Thursday) 12:45 - 2:45 p.m. in our regular classroom. Final examination exercises distributed in mid-April are due at the beginning of the period. Course evaluations. Film clips and discussion.