812 Treaty of Aix la Chapelle. The East Roman Emperor Michael I recognizes Charles as Emperor in exchange for the surrender of Istria, Venetia and Dalmatia

814 Death of Charlemagne at Aix la Chapelle

843 Partition of the Carolingian Empire by the Treaty of Verdun into Middle, Eastern and Western Kingdoms. Emperor Lothair I received the Middle Kingdom which stretched from the North Sea across Burgundy to the Gulf of Gaeta and included the imperial cities of Aix la Chapelle and Rome. Louis the German received the East Frankish Kingdom and Chalres II the Bald the West Frankish Kingdom.

844 Danish vikings campaign for plunder in Asturia and Portugal

858 Askold and Dir made way to Kiev along the route "from the Varangians to the Greeks" -- i.e. from the Baltic Sea southward towards Constantinople; their first assault on Constantinople was repulsed in 860.

860 Norwegian vikings discover Iceland

864-865 Conversion of the Bulgars to Christianity, 1st autocephalous Eastern Church

866 Christianization of a group of the Rus

871-899 Alfred the Great, king of Wessex, defeats the Danes at Edington (878); seizes London (885 and forces a partition of England along the line London-Chester

872 Unification of Norway under Harold Fairhair

882 Oleg the Wise (879-912) unites Novgorod with Kiev; Kiev became capital of the Rus state

896 Danish vikings settle at mouth of the Seine

894 Arnulf of Carinthia was recognized as king of Italy and crowned Emperor (896)

900 Louis of Provence was crowned King of Italy at Pavia; crowned Emperor at rome as Louis III (901)

911 Agreement of St. Clair sur Epte between the Seine vikings under Rollo and the Frankish king Charles the Simple (898-923): Rollo received the land as a fief and in exchange assumed its defence. After his baptism (912), he became duke and vassal of the king; the fief became a duchy

915 Berengar crowned Emperor in Italy

937 King Ethelstan defeats allied Danes (from Dublin), Scots and Welsh and establishes diplomatic ties with Germany and France

944 After a futile attack on Constantinople, Igor of Kievan Rus (912-945) concludes a trade agreement with Byzantium and opens the state to Christian influences.

948 Establishment of the bishoprics of Havelberg, Brandenburg and Oldenburg

951 Otto the Great gained dominance over Upper Italy. He made Berengar a vassal king.

957 Igor of Kiev's widow, Olga baptized.

959-975 Edgar, ruler of all England, crowned and anointed as 1st king of england by St. Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury

961?-972 Sviatoslav of Kiev destroys the Khazar state at the head of the Caspian Sea and the kingdom of the Danubian Bulgars; on his return (972) Sviatoslav slain by the Patzinaks who were allied with Byzantium. His successors, the Ruriks, ruled over the Rus principalities

965 Seizure of Sarkel at the mouth of the Don [in the Black Sea] by Svatoslav of Kiev

966 Baptism of duke Miezko of Poland

973 Establishment of the bishopric of Prague

978-1015 Vladimir I The Saint became sole ruler of Rus with the aid of his Varangians [vikings] (980); after his baptism (988) and marriage to the Byzantine princess Anna, sister of Basileus II, Kiev became the center of religious life of Kiev Rus and seat of the Metropolitan of the church