Study Guide for Bosworth's essay on "dhimma"

Bosworth teaches early Middle Eastern history at the University of Manchester in England, and is one of the editors of the Encyclopaedia of Islam.

This piece provides a useful "review" of issues about which you have read earlier in the semester, but with different "twists". The essay comes from a two-volume work on minorities [mainly Christians and Jews] in the Ottoman Empire, where it serves as background to studies on identity [again largely determined by religion, and not language or nationality] in the Middle East in later times.

Here, I want to you to consider the extent to which minorities in the Islamic worlds of the Umayyads and Abbasids occupied the positions that "early Islam" assigned to them, or whether changes in these positions had been made.